Bio Technology

Published: 6/7/2011 11:48:13 AM

Anaerobic continuous stirred-tank reactor (ACSTR)

Phenol and its derivates are toxic and aromatic compounds present in wastewaters which are generated from various industries, including petroleum refining, resin and plastic, leather and textile manufacturing, chemical and petrochemical plants, coke ovens, foundry operations, pulp and paper plants, rubber reclamation plants, pharmaceutics industry.  Since it is a highly toxic compound, phenol in the environment may present many adverse health and environmental effects; for example, phenol can alter aquatic ecosystems and damage valuable resources. To protect human health and ecosystems, phenol-laden wastewaters must be treated with an efficient and environmentally sound technique before discharging the waste into the environment. The objective of this work is the removal of phenol by anaerobic continuous stirred-tank reactor (ACSTR). This treatment operates in anaerobic condition. The Performance of the ACSTR treating synthetic phenolic wastewater with the influent phenol concentrations from 100 to 1000 mg/L was investigated.

Production of pure cellulose from nitrocellulose via chemical process

Although various inorganic esters of cellulose are made, only nitrocellulose (NC) has achieved large commercial production. NC is the oldest cellulose derivative. NC enjoys wide use of industries, and is a versatile material for studying the chemistry of cellulose. NC has gained many advances in the understanding of the chemical structure and physical properties of cellulose. The use of NC as a propellant was the first alternative to be used as black powder, which had previously been used for many centuries. With these varieties of industrial usage of NC, it has large amount of waste so it is so important that we need a safe method for the reuse of it. The method for reuse of NC must be effective and have the highest efficiency which yield valuable product.


Removal of Fe(II) from water by chitosan

Heavy metals specifically iron, in water and wastewater are very important environmental issues. Among different methods of iron removal from wastewater, adsorption is the most effective method. Chitosan has high reactivity with metal ions, due to large number of hydroxyl and amino groups in its chemical structure. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studis of iron adsorption on chitosan in a batch system have been carried out, as well as the effect of flow rate, initial iron concentration and bed depth in absorbance column was investigated.

 
Performance of anaerobic baffled reactor for the treatment of phenolic wastewater with the aid of biological sludge

Industrial effluents such as coke ovens and petrochemicals contain high concentrations of phenolic compounds which has a negative impact on environment due to its poor biodegradability. The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) is extensively applied for treating heavy oil produced effluents. ABR consists of several chambers which are in series. Some baffles are embedded vertically to force wastewater to flow under and over the baffled reactor. Therefore wastewater comes into contact of active biomass with methane gas production and natural flow.

 
Lipase enzyme production

Enzymes often catalyze biochemical reactions; which enhanced the biochemical reaction rate. Enzymes are widely used in many industries. Lipase enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of triacylglycerols to fatty acid and glycerol. Enzymes are widely used in industrial application such as, detergent and pharmaceutical industries. In production of biodiesel, dairy and bakery foods, fats and oils lipase plays an important role in biofuel synthesis. Microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger fungus are considered as the best lipase producer. In this research, lipase enzyme is produced via both submerge and solid state fermentations. In submerged and solid state fermentations soya flour and rice bran as substrate were used, respectively. The optimal conditions for enzyme production were achieved.

Biological production of chitosan from shrimp shell

Chitin is an abundant renewable resource besides cellulose. Chitin is produced from wastes of marine food production, e.g. shrimp and carb shells or krill. During the process of shrimps to human food, 40-50% of total weight is wasted. About 40% of the waste amount is chitin. Chitosan is one of the most important derivatives of chitin. Both biopolymers can be used in biomedicine, e.g. for anticancer applications, controlled release, improved wound healing, artificial skin, for food and nutrition, cosmetics, paper and textile industries, enzyme immobilization and as solid support for biosensors, bioseparation, agroindustry or in water engineering for removal of dyes or heavy metals.
In this project lactic acid ferementation, with lactobacillus plantarum was used to extract chitin from shrimp shell. Then the chitin was deacetylated in suitable condition for production of chitosan.

Removal of Fe(II) from water by chitosan

Heavy metals specifically iron, in water and wastewater are very important environmental issues. Among different methods of iron removal from wastewater, adsorption is the most effective method. Chitosan has high reactivity with metal ions, due to large number of hydroxyl and amino groups in its chemical structure. Equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studis of iron adsorption on chitosan in a batch system have been carried out, as well as the effect of flow rate, initial iron concentration and bed depth in absorbance column was investigated.

 
Performance of anaerobic baffled reactor for the treatment of phenolic wastewater with the aid of biological sludge

Industrial effluents such as coke ovens and petrochemicals contain high concentrations of phenolic compounds which has a negative impact on environment due to its poor biodegradability. The anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) is extensively applied for treating heavy oil produced effluents. ABR consists of several chambers which are in series. Some baffles are embedded vertically to force wastewater to flow under and over the baffled reactor. Therefore wastewater comes into contact of active biomass with methane gas production and natural flow.

 
The effect of electrode type on the microbial fuel cell performance

A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising technology for the generation of electricity directly from biodegradable compounds using microorganisms. The MFC needs two electrodes, anode and cathode. The selection of an effective electrode material for electron transfer in the system is clearly important for the improvement of the MFC’s efficiency. In this research, the performance of various electrodes such as graphite, carbon cloth, carbon paper, copper was investigated.

 
Waste water treatment with membraneless microbial fuel cell

In modern economy, energy is the key factor of economical growth. Future economical growth crucially depends on availability of energy from affordable accessible and environment friendly sources. The target of this project is to design a membraneless microbial fuel cell for the treatment of industrial wastewater and to generate electricity. Membraneless microbial fuel cell has less cost in contrast to other renewable sources.


List of active and on going projects :
Biological Removal of H2S from natural gas

Removal of H2S and oxidation of other sulfur compounds via biological route has gained great attention. According to the  harmful  properties  of H2S, scientists did not have enough  beneficial studies  about growth  kinetic  of  microorganisms  used  in this  method. Because of the  high  energy  and  cost  effectiveness of the chemical  processes, scientists were encouraged to implement the biological  method since the process is less  energy involved, material  and  costs.

The effect of type and concentration of substrate on the MFC performance

Global environmental and sustainable energy supply caused by fossil fuels motivated researchers to develop renewable energy technologies. Among renewable alternatives, microbial fuel cell (MFC) paid great attentions due to its possibility of directly harvesting electricity from wide range of organic components. Substrate as fuel in a MFC has a significant effect on microbial fuel cell performance. In this research, we investigate the effect of substrate type (glucose, sucrose, etc) and concentrations on the performance of a microbial fuel cell. Maximum voltage and current density was obtained in the course of fermentation process for the duration of 24 h.

Biotechnology

In the new millennium extensive application of bioprocesses has created an environment for many engineers to expand knowledge and interest in biotechnology. Microorganism produce enzyme, alcohol, and other organic compound which are used in industrial processes knowledge related to industrial microbiology has revolutionized by the ability genetically engineered cells to make many new byproducts. Genetic engineering and gene mounting has been developed for the enhancement of industrial fermentation processes. Finally application of biochemical engineering in biotechnology has become a new and alternative method for the development of commercial products.


Processing of biological materials and use of biological agent such as cell, enzyme, or antibodies are the central domains of biochemical engineering. Success in biochemical engineering requires integrated knowledge of governing biological properties and principles of chemical engineering methodology and industrial process strategy. The best information and technology from these areas accomplishes new syntheses for bioprocess design operation and optimization. In order to reach these objectives, years of studies and practices are required.

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